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# FORMULAS

## QUANTITATIVE

$particles = (moles)(N_A)$
$N_A = 6.02 × 10^{23} \frac{particles}{mol}$
$mass = (moles)(molar\ mass)$
$\% \ composition = \dfrac{M_{element}}{M_{molecule}} × 100\%$
$\% \ yield = \dfrac{actual\ yield}{theoretical\ yield} × 100\%$

## SOLUTIONS

$\text{Molarity} = \dfrac{mol\ solute}{volume\ solution\ (L)}$
$\text{Mole Fraction} = \dfrac{mol}{mol\ system}$
$\text{Molality} = \dfrac{mol\ solute}{mass\ solvent\ (kg)}$
$\text{Normality} = \dfrac{mass\ solute\ (g)}{volume solution\ (L)}$
Dilutions
$C_1V_1 = C_2V_2 \quad\quad\quad\quad\quad C = \dfrac{n_{total}}{V_{total}}$
Solubility
$aA + bB ⇌ cC + dD$
$K_{sp}, K_{eq}, Q = \dfrac{[C]^c [D]^d}{[A]^a [B]^b}$
only aqueous or gas included in Ksp
(Not liquid or solid)

Kc same as Keq
Kp for gases
Keq << 1 ... [products] < [reactants]
Keq ≈ 1 ... [products] ≈ [reactants]
Keq >> 1 ... [products] > [reactants]
Ksp < Q ... precipitate
Ksp ≈ Q ... starts
Ksp > Q ... no precipitate

## GAS

Constants:
\begin{align} R & = 8.314 \frac{L\,kPa}{mol\,K} \\ \\ & = 8.314 \frac{J}{mol\,K} \\ \\ & = 0.082 \frac{L\,atm}{mol\,K} \end{align}
Molar Volume
\begin{align} & = 22.4\ \tfrac{L}{mol}\ at\ \text{STP} \\ \\ & = 24.8\ \tfrac{L}{mol}\ at\ \text{SATP} \\ \\ \end{align}
Conditions:
$STP = 0˚C, 100\ kPa$
$SATP = 25˚C, 100\ kPa$
Pressure Units:
\begin{align} 1.0\ atm & = 101.3\ kPa \\ \\ & = 760\ mmHg \\ \\ & = 760\ torr \end{align}
Boyle's
$P_1V_1 = P_2V_2$
Charles'
$\dfrac{V_1}{T_1} = \dfrac{V_2}{V_2}$
Temperature always
in Kelvin
$\dfrac{n_1}{V_1} = \dfrac{n_2}{V_2}$
Gay-Lussac's
$\dfrac{P_1}{T_1} = \dfrac{P_2}{T_2}$
Combined Gas Law
$\dfrac{P_1\,V_1}{T_1} = \dfrac{P_2\,V_2}{T_2}$
Ideal Gas Law
$P\,V = n\,R\,T$
Partial Pressures
$P_T = P_1 + P_2 + P_3 + \, ...$
$P_x = \dfrac{n_x}{n_T}P_T$

## THERMODYNAMICS

Specific Heat
$C = m × c$
c = specific heat = specific heat capacity
C = heat capacity
Q = heat energy
$Q = m × c × \Delta t$
$Q = m × L$
(for phase changes)
L = latent heat
\begin{align} \text{molar heat capacity} & = c × molar\ mass \\ & = \dfrac{Q}{n × \Delta t} \end{align}
1st Law Thermodynamics
$\Delta U = Q - W$
+Q = heat added to system
-Q = removed from system
+W = work done by system (out)
-W = work done on system (in)
$W = Q_{in} - Q_{out}$
Changes
$Isothermal: \Delta T = 0 \\ Isobaric: \Delta P = 0 \\ Adiabatic: Q = 0 \$
Enthalpy (H)
$\Delta H_{rxn} = n\,\Delta H_{products} - n\,\Delta H_{reactants}$
diatomic gases not included
$\Delta H_{rxn} = n\, BE_{reactants} - n\, BE_{products}$
BE = bond energy Entropy (S)
$\Delta S_{reaction} = n\,\Delta S_{products} - n\,\Delta S_{reactants}$
2ndLaw Thermodynamics
$\Delta S_{universe} = \Delta S_{system} + \Delta S_{surroundings}$
Gibbs (G)
$\Delta G_{reaction} = n\,\Delta G_{products} - n\,\Delta G_{reactants}$
+∆G = Non-spontaneous (Endergonic)
-∆G = Spontaneous (Exergonic)
∆G = 0 = @ Equilibrium
$\Delta G = \Delta H - T \, \Delta S$
-∆H & +∆S = Spontaneous
+∆H & -∆S = Non-spontaneous
+∆H & +∆S = Spontaneous at High T
-∆H & -∆S = Spontaneous at Low T
Units
$\Delta H_f = \frac{kJ}{mol} \\ \Delta H_{rxn} = kJ \\ \Delta S = \frac{J}{mol\,K} \\ \Delta S_{rxn} = \frac{J}{K} \\ \Delta G = \frac{kJ}{mol} \\ \Delta G_{rxn} = kJ \$

## KINETICS

Experimental Rate Law
$Rate = k\,[A]^x × [B]^y$
k, x, y are determined experimentally
$Rate\ units = \frac{mol}{L\,s}$
Reaction Order
$0^{th}\ order: [C] ∝ t \\ 1^{st}\ order: \ln[C] ∝ t \\ 2^{nd}\ order: \frac{1}{[C]} ∝ t \$
Integrated Rate Law, 1st Order
$\ln [A]_t = -k\,t + \ln [A]_0$
[A]0 = initial reactant concentration
[A]t = final reactant concentration
k = rate constant
Integrated Rate Law, 2nd Order
$\dfrac{1}{[A]_t} = k\,t + \dfrac{1}{[A]_0}$

## ACID-BASE

$acid + base → salt + water$
$H_2O ⇌ H^+ + OH^-$
$pH = -\log[H^+] = \log\left(\frac{1}{[H^+]}\right)$
$pOH = -\log[OH^-] = \log\left(\frac{1}{[OH^-]}\right)$
Henderson-Hasselbalch
$pH = pK_a + \log\left( \dfrac{[conjugate\ base]}{[weak\ acid]} \right)$
$pOH = pK_b + \log\left( \dfrac{[conjugate\ acid]}{[weak\ base]} \right)$
$14 = pH + pOH$
\begin{align} K_w & = 10^{-14} \\ & = [H^+] × [OH^-] \end{align}
Weak Acid, Base
$K_a = \dfrac{[H^+][A^-]}{[HA]}$
$K_b = \dfrac{[B^+][OH^-]}{[BOH]}$

## ELECTROCHEMISTRY

Pseudonyms
$An. Ox. , Red. Cat.$
$O.I.L. \ R.I.G. \\ (L.E.O. \ G.E.R.)$
Cell Potential
$E˚_{cell} = E˚_{red} - E˚_{ox}$
+E˚cell = spontaneous
$E˚_{red} = higher\ number \\ E˚_{ox} = lower\ number$
Nernst
$E˚_{cell} = E˚ + \left(\dfrac{R\,T}{n\,F}\right)\ln\,Q$
E˚ = standard cell potential
T = temp in K
n = mol e- transferred in redox
Gibbs
$\Delta G˚_{cell} = - \Delta \,n\,F\,E˚_{cell}$
$\Delta G˚_{cell} = -R\,T\,\ln K_{eq}$

## COLLIGATIVE (AP)

Boiling Elevation & Freezing Depression
$\Delta T_{freeze} = n\,k_f \dfrac{n_{solute}}{m_{solvent}}$
n = moles solute (1 for non-electrolytes)
msolvent in kg
kf water = 1.86 ˚Ckg/mol
kb water = 0.52 ˚Ckg/mol
$\Delta T_{boil} = n\,k_b \dfrac{n_{solute}}{m_{solvent}}$
Osmotic Pressure
$π = M\,R\,T$
π = osmotic pressure
M = Molarity
R = universal gas constant
T = temperature in Kelvin
\begin{align} R & = 8.314 \frac{L\,kPa}{mol\,K} \\ \\ & = 8.314 \frac{J}{mol\,K} \\ \\ & = 0.082 \frac{L\,atm}{mol\,K} \end{align}

## ORGANIC

Priority:
\begin{align} Highest & = \text{Carboxylic Acid} \\ & = \text{Ester} \\ & = \text{Amide} \\ & = \text{Nitrile} \\ & = \text{Aldehyde} \\ & = \text{Ketone} \\ & = \text{Alcohol} \\ & = \text{Amine} \\ & = \text{Ether} \\ & = \text{Benzene} \\ & = \text{Alkene} \\ & = \text{Alkyne} \\ & = \text{Alkane} \\ Lowest & = \text{Alkyl, Halogen} \\ \end{align}
$Alkene \xrightarrow{H_2,\ Pd} Alkane$
$Alkene \xrightarrow{X_2} Alkyl\ Halide$
$Alkene \xrightarrow{HX,\ UV} Alkyl\ Halide$
Markovnikov:
OH or X adds to more highly substituted carbon
$Alkene \xrightarrow{H_2O,\ H^+} Alcohol$
Substitution (Mixed results)
$Alkane \xrightarrow{X_2,\ UV} Alkyl\ Halide + \ ...$
Dehydration (Elimination)
$Alcohol \xrightarrow{H_2SO_4} Alkene$
Dehydration
$Alcohol + Alcohol \xrightarrow{H_2SO_4} Ether$
Oxidation, Ketones
$Internal\ Alcohol \xrightarrow{KMnO_4,\ H^+} Ketone$
Oxidation, Aldehyde
$Terminal\ Alcohol \xrightarrow{PCC} Aldehyde$
Oxidation, Carboxylic Acid
$Terminal\ Alcohol \xrightarrow{KMnO_4,\ H^+} Carboxylic\ Acid$
Esterification (Dehydration)
$Alcohol + Carboxylic\ Acid \xrightarrow{H_2SO_4} Ester$
Benzene Hydrogenation
$Benzene \xrightarrow{H_2,\ heat,\ catalyst} Cyclohexane$
Benzene Halogenation
$Benzene \xrightarrow{X_2} Monosubstituted\ Benzene$
Benzene Alkylation
$Benzene \xrightarrow{R-Cl,\ AlCl_3} Alkyl\ Benzene$
Cyclohexene Halogenation
$Cyclohexene \xrightarrow{X_2,\ CCl_4} Disubstituted-1,2\ Cyclohexane$
Cyclohexene Hydration
$Cyclohexene \xrightarrow{KMnO_4} Cyclohexane-1,2-diol$
Cyclohexanol Dehydration
$Cyclohexanol \xrightarrow{H_2SO_4} Cyclohexene$

# REACTIONS

Oxidation Numbers of Polyatomic Oxide Ions
( # non-oxides )( oxidation state of non-oxide ) + ( # oxides )( oxidation state of oxide ) = polyatomic charge
E.g.) SO42-, Sulfate(VI), [aka Sulphate(VI)]
\begin{align} (1)(s) + (4)(-2) & = -2 \\ \\ s & = +6 \end{align}
Synthesis from Elemental Molecules
$2H_{2 (g)} + O_{2 (g)} \xrightarrow{} 2H_2O_{(l)}$
Decomposition of a Single Compound
$2H_2O_{2 (l)} + \xrightarrow{} 2H_2O_{(l)} + O_{2 (g)}$
Neutralization Strong Acid + Strong Base → Salt + Water
$NaOH_{(aq)} + HCl_{(aq)} \xrightarrow{} NaCl_{(aq)} + H_2O_{(l)}$
Single Displacement with Hydrogen → Salt + Hydrogen Gas
$Ca_{(s)} + H_2O_{(l)} \xrightarrow{} CaO_{(s)} + H_{2 (g)}$
Single Displacement of Anions → Salt + Some Gas
$F_{2 (g)} + 2NaCl_{(aq)} \xrightarrow{} 2NaF_{(aq)} + Cl_{2 (g)}$
Complete Combustion Organic Compound + Oxygen → Carbon Dioxide + Water
$C_2H_6O_{(g)} + 3O_{2 (g)} \xrightarrow{} 2CO_{2 (g)} + 3H_2O_{(l)}$
Incomplete Combustion Organic Compound + Oxygen → Carbon Monoxide + Water
$2C_4H_{10 (g)} + 9O_{2 (g)} \xrightarrow{} 8CO_{(g)} + 10H_2O_{(l)}$
Metal Oxide + Carbon Dioxide → Metal Carbonate
$CaO_{(s)} + CO_{2 (g)} \xrightarrow{} CaCO_{3 (s)}$
Metal Oxide + Sulfur Dioxide → Metal Sulfite/Sulphite
$CaO_{(s)} + SO_{2 (g)} \xrightarrow{} CaSO_{3 (s)}$
(Metal or Metal Oxide) + Water → Base + Hydrogen Gas
$2Li_{(s)} + 2H_2O_{(l)} \xrightarrow{} 2LiOH_{(aq)} + H_{2 (g)}$
Metal Oxide + Hydrogen Gas → Metal + Water
$FeO_{(s)} + H_{2 (g)} \xrightarrow{} Fe_{(s)} + H_2O_{(l)}$
Metal + Oxygen → Metal Oxide
$2Fe_{(s)} + 2O_{2 (g)} \xrightarrow{} 2Fe_2O_{3 (s)}$
Nonmetal Oxide + Water → Acid
$N_2O_{5 (s)} + H_2O_{(l)} \xrightarrow{} 2HNO_{3 (aq)}$
Single Displacement, RedOx, Synthesis, Dehydration
$Cu_{(s)} + 4HNO_{3 (aq)} \xrightarrow{} {\color{DeepSkyBlue} Cu(NO_3)_{2 (aq)} } + 2NO_{2 (g)} + 2H_2O_{(l)}$
Double Displacement
${\color{DeepSkyBlue} Cu(NO_3)_{2 (aq)} } + NaOH_{(aq)} \xrightarrow{} {\color{Green} Cu(OH)_{2 (s)} } + 2Na(NO_3)_{(aq)}$
Decomposition, Dehydration
${\color{Green} Cu(OH)_{2 (s)} } \xrightarrow{\Delta} {\color{DarkOrchid} CuO_{(s)} } + H_2O{(l)}$
Double Displacement
${\color{DarkOrchid} CuO_{(s)} } + H_2SO_{4 (aq)} \xrightarrow{} {\color{OrangeRed} Cu(SO_4)_{(aq)} } + H_2O_{(l)}$
Single Displacement Ionic compound + Metal
${\color{OrangeRed} 2Cu(SO_4)_{(aq)} } + Zn_{(s)} \xrightarrow{} Zn(SO_4)_{(aq)} + 2Cu_{(s)}$
$H_2SO_{4 (aq)} + Zn_{(s)} \xrightarrow{} H_{2 (g)} + Zn(SO_4)_{(aq)}$

# POLYATOMIC

## [CO32– ≈ SiO32-]

 Formula Name IUPAC Oxyanion/Oxoanion Name CATIONS NH4+ ammonium ANIONS OH– hydroxide BO33– borate borate(III) HCO2– formate C2H3O2– or CH3COO– acetate, ethanoate C2O42– oxalate, oxylate oxalate(III) CO32– carbonate carbonate(IV) CN– cyanide OCN– cyanate CNO– fulminate SCN– thiocyanate HCO3– bicarbonate (or hydrogen carbonate) SiO32– silicate silicate(IV) NO3– nitrate nitrate(V) NO2– nitrite nitrate(III) N2O22– hyponitrite nitrate(I) N3– azide O2– superoxide O22– peroxide PO43– phosphate phosphate(V) PO33– phosphite phosphate(III) PO23– hypophosphite phosphate(I) HPO42– hydrogen phosphate H2PO4– dihydrogen phosphate HPO32– hydrogen phosphite H2PO3– dihydrogen phosphite PO23– hypophosphite AsO43– arsenate arsenate(V) SbO43– antimonate antimonate(V) SO52– persulfate, aka persulphate sulfate(VIII), aka sulphate(VIII) SO42– sulfate, aka sulphate sulfate(VI), aka sulphate(VI) SO32– sulfite, aka sulphite sulfate(IV), aka sulphate(IV) SO22– hyposulfite, aka hyposulphite sulfate(II), aka sulphate(IV) HSO4– hydrogen sulfate or bisulfate HSO3– hydrogen sulfite or bisulfite S2O32– thiosulfate thiosulfate(II) SeO42– selenate selenate(VI) FO4– perfluorate fluorate(VII) FO3– fluorate fluorate(V) FO2– fluorite fluorate(III) FO– hypofluorite fluorate(I) ClO4– perchlorate chlorate(VII) ClO3– chlorate chlorate(V) ClO2– chlorite chlorate(III) ClO– hypochlorite chlorate(I) BrO4– perbromate bromate(VII) BrO3– bromate bromate(V) BrO2– bromite bromate(III) BrO– hypobromite bromate(I) IO4– periodiate iodate(VII) IO3– iodate iodate(V) IO2– iodite iodate(III) IO– hypoiodite iodate(I) I3– triiodide VO3– vanadate vanadate(V) CrO42– chromate chromate(VI) Cr2O72– dichromate chromate(VI) CrO32– ? chromate(IV) CrO21– , Cr2O42- chromite chromate(III) FeO42– ferrate ferrate(VI) MnO4– permanganate manganate(VII) SnO32– stannate stannate(IV) PbO32– plumbate plumbate(IV)

## Modern IUPAC Oxyanion/Oxoanion Oxidation Numbers

 Oxyanion/Oxoanion Oxidation Number on 'X' XO1- +1 XO21- +3 XO22- +2 XO31- +5 XO32- +4 XO33- +3 XO41- +7 XO42- +6 XO43- +5 XO52- +8

# REACTIVITY

 Reactivity Ranking Cation Element 1 (Most Reactive) Lithium, Li 2 Potassium, K 3 Barium, Ba 4 Calcium, Ca 5 Sodium, Na 6 Magnesium, Mg 7 Aluminum, Al 8 Zinc, Zn 9 Chromium, Cr 10 Iron, Fe 11 Cadmium, Cd 12 Cobalt, Co 13 Nickel, Ni 14 Tin, Sn 15 Lead, Pb 16 Hydrogen, H 17 Copper, Cu 18 Mercury, Hg 19 Silver, Ag 20 Platinum, Pt 21 (Least Reactive) Gold, Au
 Reactivity Ranking Anion Element 1 (Most Reactive) Fluoride, F- 2 Sulfate, SO42- 3 Nitrate, NO3- 4 Chloride, Cl- 5 Bromide, Br- 6 Iodide, I- 7 (Least Reactive) Hydroxide, OH-

# SOLUBILITY

## [] > 0.1 M = SOLUBLE

 Order (Ranking) Cation Anion Solubility Exceptions 1 (Highest) Li+, Na+, K+, NH4+ NO3-, ClO3-, CH3COO- Soluble Insoluble: Ca(ClO3)2 2 Ag+, Hg2+, Pb+ OH-, PO43-, CO32-, O2-, S2-, Insoluble Soluble: BaO, Ba(OH)2, and Group 2 Sulfides 3 Cl-, Br-, I- Soluble 4 Ca2+, Sr2+, Ba2+ Insoluble 5 (Lowest) Mg2+, Al3+, Fe2+, Fe3+, Cu2+, Zn2+ SO42- Soluble

# ACIDS/BASES

 6 Most Common Strong Acids HCl HBr HI HNO3 H2SO4 HClO4
 7 Most Common Strong Bases LiOH NaOH KOH RbOH Ca(OH)2 Sr(OH)2 Ba(OH)2

# HALF-REACTIONS

## Largest (positive) number gets reduced

 Reduction Half-Reaction Standard Potential Ered° (V) F2(g) + 2e – → 2F–(aq) +2.87 O3(g) + 2H3O+(aq) + 2e– → O2(g) + 3H2O(l) +2.076 Co3+(aq) + e– → Co2+(aq) +1.92 H2O2(aq) + 2H3O+(aq) + 2e– → 2H2O(l) +1.776 N2O(g) + 2H3O+(aq) + 2e– → N2(g) + 3H2O(l) +1.766 Ce4+(aq) + e– → Ce3+(aq) +1.72 PbO2(s) + SO42–(aq) + 4H3O+(aq) + 2e– → PbSO4(s) + 6H2O(l) +1.6913 MnO4–(aq) + 4H3O+(aq) + 3e– → MnO2(s) + 6H2O(l) +1.679 NiO2(s) + 4H3O+(aq) + 2e– → Ni2+(aq) + 6H2O(l) +1.678 2HClO(aq) + 2H3O+(aq) + 2e– → Cl2(g) +2H2O(l) +1.611 H5IO6(s) + H3O+(aq) + 2e– → IO3–(aq) + 4H2O(l) +1.601 2NO(g) + 2H3O+(aq) + 2e– → N2O(g) + 3H2O(l) +1.591 MnO4–(aq) + 8H3O+(aq) + 5e– → Mn2+(aq) + 12H2O(l) +1.507 Au3+(aq) + 3e– → Au(s) +1.498 PbO2(s) + 4H3O+(aq)+ 2e– → Pb2+(aq) + 6H2O(l) +1.455 ClO3–(aq) + 6H3O+(aq) + 6e– → Cl–(aq) + 9H2O(l) +1.451 BrO3–(aq) + 6H3O+(aq) + 5e– → 1/2Br2(l) + 9H2O(l) +1.482 2ClO4–(aq) + 16H3O+(aq) + 14e– → Cl2(g) + 24H2O(l) +1.39 ClO4–(aq) + 8H3O+(aq) + 8e– → Cl–(aq) + 12H2O(l) +1.389 Cl2(g) + 2e– → 2Cl–(aq) +1.36 ClO4–(aq) + 6H3O+(aq) + 6e– → ClO–(aq) + 9H2O(l) +1.36 HBrO(aq) + H3O+(aq) + 2e– → Br– + 2H2O(l) +1.331 Cr2O72–(aq) + 14H3O+(aq) + 6e– → 2Cr3+(aq) + 21H2O(l) +1.232 O2(g) + 4H+(aq) + 4e– → 2H2O(l) +1.23 MnO2(s) + 4H3O+(aq) + 2e– → Mn2+(aq) + 6H2O(l) +1.224 2IO3–(aq) + 12H3O+(aq) + 10e– → I2(s) + 18H2O(l) +1.195 ClO4–(aq) + 2H3O+(aq) + 2e– → ClO3–(aq) + 3H2O(l) +1.189 Pt2+(aq) + 2e– → Pt(s) +1.18 Br2(aq) + 2e– → 2Br–(aq) +1.0873 Br2(l) + 2e– → 2Br–(aq) +1.07 NO2(g) + 2H3O+(aq) + 2e– → NO(g) + 3H2O(l) +1.03 NO3–(aq) + 4H3O+(aq) +3e– → NO(g) + 6H2O(l) +0.957 2Hg2+(aq) + 2e– → Hg22+(aq) +0.920 Pd2+(aq) + 2e– → Pd(s) +0.915 Hg2+(aq) + 2e– → Hg(l) +0.851 ClO–(aq) + H2O(l) + 2e– → Cl–(aq) + 2OH–(aq) +0.81 Ag+(aq) + e– → Ag(s) +0.80 Hg22+(aq) + 2e– → 2Hg(l) +0.7973 Fe3+(aq) + e– → Fe2+(aq) +0.771 Ni(OH)2(s) + 2e– → Ni(s) + 2OH–(aq) +0.72 p-benzoquinone + H3O+(aq) + 2e– → hydroquinone + H2O(l) +0.6992 O2(g) + 2H3O+(aq) + 2e– → H2O2(l) + 2H2O(l) +0.695 MnO4–(aq) + 2H2O(l) + 3e– → MnO2(s) + 4OH–(aq) +0.595 I2(s) + 2e– → 2I–(aq) +0.54 I3–(aq) + 2e– → 3I–(aq) +0.536 Cu+(aq) + e– → Cu(s) +0.52 O2(g) + 2H2O + 4e– → 4OH–(aq) +0.401 Fe(CN)63–(aq) + e– → Fe(CN)64–(aq) +0.358 Cu2+(aq) + 2e– → Cu(s) +0.34 Hg2Cl2(s) + 2e– → 2Hg(l) + 2Cl–(aq) +0.26808 HAsO2(s) + 3H3O+(aq) + 3e– → As(s) + 5H2O +0.248 AgCl(s) + e– → Ag(s) + Cl-(aq) +0.22233 Cu2+(aq) + e– → Cu+(aq) +0.153 Sn4+(aq) +2e– → Sn2+(aq) +0.151 S(s) + 2H3O+(aq) + 2e– → H2S(s) + 2H2O(l) +0.14 NO3–(aq) +2H2O(l) + 3e– → NO(g) + 4OH–(aq) +0.109 N2(g) + 8H3O+(aq) + 6e– → 2NH4+(aq) +8H2O(l) +0.092 S4O62–(aq) + 2e– → 2S3O32–(aq) +0.08 AgBr(s) + e– → Ag(s) + Br–(aq) +0.07133 2H+(aq) + 2e– → H2(g) 0.000 Fe3+(aq) + 3e– → Fe(s) -0.04 [Co(NH3)6]3+(aq) + e– → [Co(NH3)6]2+(aq) -0.108 Pb2+(aq) + 2e– → Pb(s) –0.13 Sn2+(aq) + 2e– → Sn(s) –0.14 O2(g) + 2H2O(l) + 2e– → H2O2(l) + 2OH–(aq) –0.146 AgI(s) + e– → Ag(s) + I– (aq) –0.15224 CO2(g) + 2H3O+(aq) + 2e– → HCO2H(s) + 2H2O(l) –0.199 Cu(OH)2(s) + 2e– → Cu(s) + 2OH–(aq) –0.222 Ni2+(aq) + 2e– → Ni(s) –0.26 Co2+(aq) + 2e– → Co(s) –0.28 PbSO4(s) + 2e– → Pb(s) + SO42–(aq) –0.3588 SeO32–(aq) + 3H2O(l) + 4e– → Se + 6OH–(aq) –0.366 Cd2+(aq) + 2e– → Cd(s) –0.403 Cr3+(aq) + e– → Cr2+(aq) –0.407 Fe2+(aq) + 2e– → Fe(s) –0.44 NO2–(g) + H2O(l) + 3e– → NO(g) + 2OH–(aq) –0.46 S(s) + 2e– → S2–(aq) –0.48 2CO2(g) + 2H3O+(aq) + 2e– → H2C2O4(s) + H2O(l) –0.49 TiO2(s) + 4H3O+ + 2e– → Ti2+(aq) + 6H2O(l) –0.502 Au(CN)2–(aq) + e– → Au(s) + 2CN–(aq) –0.60 Cr3+(aq) + 3e– → Cr(s) –0.74 Zn2+(aq) + 2e– → Zn(s) –0.76 Cd(OH)2(s) + 2e– → Cd(s) + 2OH–(aq) –0.809 2H2O(l) + 2e– → H2(g) + 2OH–(aq) –0.83 Ti3+(aq) + e– → Ti2+(aq) –0.85 H3BO3(s) + 3H3O+ + 3e– → B(s) + 6H2O(l) –0.8698 Cr2+(aq) + 2e– → Cr(s) –0.91 CNO–(aq) + H2O(l) + 2e– → CN–(aq) + 2OH–(aq) –0.970 [Zn(NH3)4]2+(aq) + 2e– → Zn(s) + 4NH3(aq) –1.04 Mn2+(aq) + 2e– → Mn(s) –1.185 Cr(OH)3(s) + 3e– → Cr(s) + 3OH–(aq) –1.48 Ti2+(aq) + 2e– → Ti(s) –1.630 Al3+(aq) + 3e– → Al(s) –1.66 Al(OH)3(s) + 3e– → Al(s) + 3OH–(aq) –2.31 Mg2+(aq) + 2e– → Mg(s) –2.38 Mg(OH)2(s) + 2e– → Mg(s) + 2OH–(aq) –2.69 Na+(aq) + e– → Na(s) –2.71 Ca2+(aq) + 2e– → Ca(s) –2.87 Ba2+(aq) + 2e– → Ba(s) –2.912 K+(aq) + e– → K(s) –2.931 Ba(OH)2(s) + 2e– → Ba(s) + 2OH–(aq) –2.99 Ca(OH)2(s) + 2e– → Ca(s) + 2OH–(aq) –3.02 Cs+(aq) + e– → Cs(s) –3.026 Li+(aq) + e– → Li(s) –3.04

# FORMATION

 Substance ∆Hf˚ (kJ/mol) ∆Gf˚ (kJ/mol) S˚ (J/mol K) Ag(s) 0 0 42.6 Ag+(aq) 105.8 77.107 73.4 Ag2O(s) –31.1 –11.2 121.3 Ag2S(s) –32.6 –40.7 144.0 AgBr(s) –100.4 –96.9 107.1 AgCl(s) –127.0 –109.8 96.3 AgI(s) –61.8 –66.2 115.5 AgNO3(s) –124.4 –33.4 140.9 Al(s) 0 0 28.3 Al2O3(s) –1675.7 –1582.3 50.9 AlCl3(s) –704.2 –628.8 109.3 Ar(g) 0 0 154.843 As(s) 0 0 35.1 As2O5(s) –924.9 –782.3 105.4 AsCl3(l) –305.0 –259.4 216.3 Au(s) 0 0 47.4 Ba(s) 0 0 62.5 BaCl2(s) –855.0 –806.7 123.7 BaCO3(s) –1213.0 –1134.4 112.1 BaO(s) –548.0 –520.3 72.1 BaSO4(s) –1473.2 –1362.2 132.2 B(s) 0 0 5.9 B2O3(s) –1273.5 –1194.3 54.0 H3BO3(s) –1094.3 –968.9 90.0 BCl3(g) –403.8 –388.7 290.1 BCl3(l) –427.2 –387.4 206.3 BCl3(s) –403.8 –388.7 290.1 Be(OH)2(s) –902.5 –815.0 45.5 Be(s) 0 0 9.5 BeO(s) 0 -580.1 13.8 Br(g) 111.9 82.4 175.0 Br2(g) 30.9 3.1 245.5 Br2(l) 0 0 152.2 Br–(aq) –121.4 –104.0 82.4 BrO–(aq) –94.1 –33.4 42 BrF3(g) –255.6 –229.4 292.5 C(diamond) 1.9 2.9 2.4 C(g) 716.7 671.3 158.1 C(graphite) 0 0 5.7 CCl4(l) –139 –68.6 214.4 CH4(g) –74.6 –50.5 186.3 C2H2(g) 227.4 209.9 200.9 C2H4(g) 52.4 68.4 219.3 C2H5OH(g) –234.8 –167.9 281.6 C2H5OH(l) –277.6 –174.8 160.7 C2H6(g) –84.0 –32.0 229.2 C3H6(g) 20.0 74.62 226.9 C3H8(g) –103.8 –23.4 270.3 C6H6(l) 49.1 124.5 173.4 Ca(g) 177.8 144 154.9 Ca(OH)2(s) –985.2 –897.5 83.4 Ca(s) 0 0 41.6 Ca2+(aq) –543.0 –553.6 –56.2 Ca3(PO4)2(s) -4120.8 –3884.7 236.0 CaC2(s) –59.8 –64.9 70.0 CaCl2(s) –795.4 –748.8 108.4 CaCO3(s) –1207.6 –1129.1 91.7 CaF2(s) –1228.0 –1175.6 68.5 CaH2(s) –181.5 –142.5 41.4 CaO(s) –634.9 –603.3 38.1 CaS(s) –482.4 –477.4 56.5 CaSO4(s) –1434.5 –1322.0 106.5 CH3OH(g) –201.0 –162.3 239.9 CH3OH(l) –239.2 –166.6 126.8 CH4(g) –74.6 –50.5 186.3 CH3CHO(g) –166.2 –127.6 263.8 CH3CO2H(l) –484.3 –389.9 159.8 CH3CH2OH(l) –277.6 –174.8 160.7 CH3CN(l) 40.6 86.5 149.6 CHCl3(g) –102.7 6.0 295.7 CHCl3(l) –134.1 –73.7 201.7 Cd(s) 0 0 51.8 CdO(s) –258.4 –228.7 54.8 CdCl(s) –391.5 –343.9 115.3 Cl2(g) 0 0 223.1 Cl(g) 121.3 105.3 165.2 Cl–(aq) –167.1 –131.0 165.2 ClO–(aq) –107.1 –36.8 42 ClO2–(aq) –67 17 101 ClO3–(aq) –104 –3 162 ClO4–(aq) –128.1 –8.52 184.0 ClO(g) 101.8 98.1 226.6 ClO2(g) 102.5 120.5 256.8 CO(g) –110.5 –137.2 197.7 CO2(g) –393.5 –394.4 213.8 COCl2(g) –219.1 –204.9 283.5 Cr(s) 0 0 23.8 Cr2O3(s) –1139.7 –1058.1 81.2 CrCl3(s) –556.5 –486.1 123.1 Co(s) 0 0 30.0 CoO(s) –237.9 –214.2 53.0 CoCl2(s) –312.5 –269.8 109.2 Cs(s) 0 0 85.2 CS2(g) 116.7 67.1 237.8 CS2(l) 89.0 64.6 151.3 CsCl(s) –443.0 –414.5 101.2 Cu(s) 0 0 33.2 CuO(s) –157.3 –129.7 42.6 CuS(s) –53.1 –53.6 66.5 CuCl2(s) –220.1 –175.7 108.1 CuCl(s) –137.2 –119.9 86.2 CuBr(s) –104.6 –100.8 96.1 CuI(s) –67.8 –69.5 96.7 CuSO4(s) –771.4 –662.2 109.2 F(g) 79.4 62.3 158.8 F2(g) 0 0 202.8 F–(g) –335.4 –278.79 –13.8 Fe(s) 0 0 27.3 Fe2O3(s) –824.2 –742.2 87.4 FeO(s) –272.0 –251.4 60.8 Fe3O4(s) –1118.4 –1015.4 146.4 Fe(OH)3(s) –823.0 –696.5 106.7 FeCl2(s) –341.8 –302.3 118.0 FeCl3(s) –399.5 –334.0 142 FeSO4(s) –928.4 –820.8 107.5 FeS(s) –100.0 –100.4 60.3 FeS2(s) –178.2 –166.9 52.9 Ga(s) 0 0 40.8 Ga2O3(s) –1089.1 –998.3 85.0 Ge(s) 0 0 31.1 GeO(s) –261.9 –237.2 50.0 GeCl4(g) –495.8 –457.3 347.7 GeO2(s) –580.0 –521.4 39.7 H+(aq) 0 0 0 H2(g) 0 0 130.7 H2O(g) –241.8 –228.6 188.8 H2O(l) –285.8 –237.1 70.0 H3O+(aq) –285.83 –237.1 69.95 H2O2(l) –187.8 –120.4 109.6 H2S(g) –20.6 –33.4 205.8 H2SO4(l) –814 –690.0 156.9 H3PO4 –1271.7 –1123.6 150.8 HBr(g) –36.3 –53.4 198.7 HCl(g) –92.3 –95.3 186.9 HCN(g) 135.1 124.7 201.8 HF(g) –273.3 –275.4 173.8 HNO3(l) -174.1 -80.7 155.6 HNO3(g) –133.9 –73.5 266.9 H2Se(g) 29.7 15.9 219.0 Hg(l) 0 0 75.9 Hg(g) 61.4 31.8 175.0 HgO(s) –90.8 –58.5 70.3 HgS(s) –58.2 –50.6 82.4 HgCl2(s) –224.3 –178.6 146.0 Hg2Cl2(s) –265.4 –210.7 191.6 HI(g) 26.5 1.7 206.6 He(g) 0 0 126.153 I2(g) 62.4 19.3 260.7 I2(s) 0 0 116.1 I–(aq) –56.78 –51.57 106.5 K(s) 0 0 64.7 K+(aq) –252.1 –283.7 101.2 KO2(aq) –284.9 –239.4 116.7 KOH(s) –424.6 –378.9 78.9 KBr(s) –393.8 –380.7 95.9 KCl(s) –436.5 –408.5 82.6 KClO3(s) –397.7 –296.3 143.1 KF(s) –567.3 –537.8 66.6 KI(s) –327.9 –324.9 106.3 Kr(g) 0 0 164.085 Li(s) 0 0 29.1 Li+(aq) –278.47 –293.31 12.2 Li2O(s) –597.9 –561.2 37.6 LiOH(s) –484.9 –439.0 42.8 LiCl(s) –408.6 –384.4 59.3 Mg(s) 0 0 32.7 Mg2+(aq) –467.0 –454.8 –137 Mg(OH)2(s) –924.5 –833.5 63.2 MgCl2(s) –641.3 –591.8 89.6 MgF2(s) –1124.2 –1071.1 57.2 MgCO3(s) –1095.8 –1012.1 65.7 MgO(s) –601.6 –569.3 27.0 MgSO4(s) –1284.9 –1170.6 91.6 Mn(s) 0 0 32.0 MnO(s) –385.2 –362.9 59.7 MnO2(s) –520.0 –465.1 53.1 MnCl2(s) –481.3 –440.5 118.2 MnCO3(s) –894.1 –816.7 85.8 MnSO4(s) –1065.25 –957.36 112.1 N2(g) 0 0 191.6 N2H4(l) 50.6 149.3 121.2 N2O(g) 81.6 103.7 220.0 N2O4(g) 11.1 99.8 304.4 N2O5(g) 13.3 117.1 355.7 NH3(g) –45.9 –16.4 192.8 NH3(aq) –80.29 –26.50 111.3 NH4+(aq) –133.3 –79.31 111.2 NH4Cl(s) –314.4 –202.9 94.6 NH4NO3(s) –365.6 –183.9 151.1 (NH2)2CO(s) –333.1 –198 105 Na(s) 0 0 51.3 Na+(aq) –240.3 –261.905 58.5 Na2CO3(s) –1130.7 –1044.4 135.0 NaCl(s) –411.2 –384.1 72.1 NaF(s) –576.6 –546.3 51.1 NaBr(s) –361.1 –349.0 86.8 NaI(s) –287.8 –286.1 98.5 NaNO3(s) –467.9 –367.0 116.5 NaOH(s) –425.8 –379.7 64.4 Na2O(s) -414.2 -375.5 75.1 Ne(g) 0 0 146.328 Ni(s) 0 0 29.9 NiO(s) –239.7 –211.7 37.99 NiCl2(s) –305.3 –259.0 97.7 NO(g) 91.3 87.6 210.8 NO2(g) 33.2 51.3 240.1 O(g) 249.2 231.7 161.1 O2(g) 0 0 205.2 O3(g) 142.7 163.2 238.9 OH–(aq) –230.0 –157.244 –10.9 OPb(s) (massicot) -217.3 -187.9 68.7 O2Te(s) -322.6 -270.3 79.5 OTl2(s) -178.7 -147.3 126.0 P(s, white) 0 0 41.1 P(s, red) –17.6 –12.1 22.8 P4(g) 58.9 24.4 280.0 PH3(g) 5.4 13.4 210.2 P4O10(s) –2984.0 –2697.7 228.86 PCl3(g) –287.0 –267.8 311.8 PCl5(g) –374.9 –305.0 364.6 Pb(s) 0 0 64.8 PbCl2(s) –359.4 –314.1 136.0 PbO(s) –217.3 –187.9 68.7 PbO2(s) –277.4 –217.3 68.6 PbS(s) –100.4 –98.7 91.2 Sb(s) 0 0 45.7 Sb4O6(s) –1417.1 –1253.0 246.0 Se(s) 0 0 42.7 Si(s) 0 0 18.8 SiH4(g) 34.3 56.9 204.6 SiO2(s) –910.7 –856.3 41.5 SiCl4(l) –687.0 –619.8 239.7 SiC(s) –65.3 –62.8 16.6 Sn(s, white) 0 0 51.2 Sn(s, gray) –2.1 0.13 44.1 SnO(s) –280.7 –251.9 57.2 SnO2(s) –577.6 –515.8 49.0 SnCl4(s) –511.3 –440.1 258.6 Sr(s) 0 0 55.0 SrO(s) –592.0 –561.9 54.4 SrCl2(s) –828.9 –781.1 114.9 S8(s) 0 0 31.80 S8(g) 102.30 49.63 430.23 SO2(g) –296.8 –300.1 248.2 SO3(g) –395.7 –371.1 256.8 SO42–(aq) –909.3 –774.53 18.5 SF6(g) –1220.5 –1116.5 291.5 Te(s) 0 0 49.7 TeO2(s) –322.6 –270.3 79.5 Ti(s) 0 0 30.7 TiCl4(l) –804.2 –737.2 252.3 TiCl4(g) –763.2 –726.3 353.2 TiO2(s) –944.0 –888.8 50.6 Tl(s) 0 0 64.2 U(s) 0 0 50.2 UO2(s) –1085.0 –1031.8 77.0 UF6(g) –2147.4 –2063.7 377.9 Xe(g) 0 0 169.685 XeF4(s) –261.5 –138 316 Zn(s) 0 0 41.63 ZnO(s) –350.5 –320.5 43.7 ZnCl2(s) –415.1 –369.4 111.5 ZnS(s) –206.0 –201.3 57.7
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