The SI unit of mass is: |
Kilogram (kg) |
The SI unit of length is: |
Meter (m) |
How many of the following are vector quantities? Speed, distance, time, velocity, acceleration, displacement, distance, and force. |
4 Velocity, acceleration, displacement, and force (note that vectors have direction, whereas scalars do not have direction). |
A jogger runs a 10km lap in 1 hour. Are the average velocity and average speed the same? |
No. The average velocity is zero because the runner starts and ends in the same place (a lap). The average speed = 10km/1hr = 10km/hr |
State the vertical component of velocity of a 10m/s projectile launched at 40˚ to the horizontal. |
10sin40˚ (also accept 10cos60˚) |
True/False: Assuming negligible air resistance, a bowling ball and a golf ball dropped from the same height would land at the same time. |
True (Since distance, v_{1}, v_{2}, and acceleration are the same, then time will be the same. Mass does not matter). |
True/False: Neglecting air resistance, the horizontal velocity of projectile motion (v_{x}) is constant. |
True. |
Can this formula be used for acceleration (non-uniform motion)? d = v · t |
No, this formula is used when velocity is constant, or in other words when there is no acceleration (uniform motion). |
Explain how to calculate displacement on a velocity-time graph |
Displacement is the area underneath the curve, or function all the way to the x-axis. |
Explain why the normal force is not always just: F_{N} = mg |
This (F_{N} = mg) would work for an object sitting on a table for example. But if an applied force (F_{A}) is present with a vertical component, then the normal force will be the net resultant of weight (mg) and the vertical component of F_{A}. |
What is weight? Can objects in space be massless? |
Weight is the force due to gravity. Weight = (mass)(gravity) No, massless is an incorrect term. Objects in space do not experience gravity and are considered weightless, even though they have do have a mass. |
State Newton's 1^{st} Law |
An object in motion or at rest will remain in that state unless acted upon by a net force. |
State Newton's 2^{nd} Law |
The acceleration of an object is directly proportional to the net force and inversely proportional to the total mass. |
State Newton's 3^{rd} Law |
For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction |
Describe what factors the force of static friction depends on |
Static friction depends mostly on the coefficient of static friction (µ_{s}), which is different for different materials. The force also depends on the normal force (F_{N}) F_{s} ≤ (µ_{s})(F_{N}) |
For an object moving along a conveyor belt, or an object being transported forward on the floor of a car, describe the direction of the force of friction. |
For a stationary object on a moving conveyor belt or car, the force of static friction (F_{s}) is in the same direction as the movement of the conveyor or car. |
Describe why the normal force of an object on an incline plane does not equal the force due to gravity |
The normal force opposes the y-component of the force due to gravity, F_{g (y)}. So, the normal force is equal and opposite to (m)(g)(cosθ˚) |
True/False: The tension in a pulley is the same along the entire pulley |
True. |
An object traveling at a constant speed in a circle experiences what force? |
Centripetal force F_{c} = m·a_{c} |
What is translational equlibrium? |
When net force equals zero. |
For a vehicle in circular motion, what two quantities must be equal for the vehicle to travel at a maximum velocity while not slipping? |
The centripetal force (F_{c}) must equal the force of static friction (F_{s}). F_{c} = F_{s} |
For a vehicle traveling around a banked curve, in what direction is the centripetal acceleration (A_{c}) directed? |
Directed into the center of the radius of curvature, which in other words is like the center of the circle. |
What is the unit for work? |
Joule (J) |
Describe how total mechanical energy is conserved as an object falls from rest off a cliff |
The total mechanical energy is conserved as the same magnitude at every point during the fall. At each point, the sum of the potential energy plus the kinetic energy is the same magnitude. E_{T} = PE + KE = constant |
Are the units for kinetic and potential energy the same? |
Yes, the unit for each is the Joule (J) |
What is the following equation? U = m·g·h |
This is gravitational potential energy (for objects near the Earth's surface) |
A rollercoaster moving with velocity at the top of a loop would have total energy expressed as what equation(s)? |
E_{total} = mgh + ½mv^{2} |
A rollercoaster that has the minimum speed necessary to remain on the track at the top of a loop has what normal force? |
The normal force, F_{N} = 0 |
Is work a scalar or a vector quantity? |
Scalar (the direction does not matter) |
State the law of conservation of energy |
Energy cannot be created or destroyed, only converted from one form into another |
How is power calculated and what is the unit of power? |
Power equals the change in energy divided by the change in time. The unit of power is the Watt (W) |
A force is exerted 90˚ to a distance. Describe what the work is. |
Work = 0 Since F = F·d·cosθ When there is a 90˚ angle between the force and the distance (cos90˚) = 0 and the work = 0 |
True/False: Momentum (p) is conserved for both elastic and inelastic collisions. |
True |
An explosion is what type of collision? |
Elastic |
In conservation of momentum equations, does the sign (±) on the velocity matter? |
Yes, it is important to define a positive direction and maintain proper positive and negative velocities. |
What is the unit for momentum (p)? |
Kg·m/s (or N/s) |
How are momentum and impulse related? |
Impulse = the change in momentum (∆p) Another form of momentum (p = mv) is force times time (p = Ft) |
When is kinetic energy conserved? |
In completely elastic collisions |
True/False: Momentum is conserved in the component directions, i.e. the x-components and y-components of momentum are each conserved |
True |
What must be equal to zero for momentum to be conserved? |
The net external force on the system must be zero |
Does mass affect the period (T), or frequency (f) of a pendulum? |
No The period of a pendulum only depends on the length of the pendulum and gravity |
What are the units of spring constant? Hint: F = -k·x |
N/m |
What is the difference between displacement and amplitude in the periodic motion of a pendulum or spring? |
Amplitude is a constant referring to the maximum displacement of a particular harmonic event. Displacement is a changing quantity based on the location of the spring or pendulum at a certain instant in time. |
What is angular frequency (ω) and what is the unit? |
The speed of rotation. The unit is rad/s |
What is the unit of angular acceleration (α)? |
rad/s^{2} Radians per second squared (in some cases this can convert to m/s^{2} when radians don't count) |
Why does Hooke's law have a negative sign? F = -k·x |
The negative sign indicates that the spring force (F_{s}) is a restoring force directed back towards the original equilibrium position. |
What is the difference between the spring equation for kinetic and potential energy? |
The spring constant (k) is used in place of mass in the equation for potential energy (U) |
Describe the equation used in SHM: |
This equation is for springs. The total energy in SHM is conserved. (Conservation of energy of pendulums uses a lightly different equation, where mgh is used for potential energy) |
At what point is the maximum velocity located in the SHM of a spring or pendulum? |
At the equilibrium position. |
At what point is the maximum acceleration or the minimum velocity located in the SHM of a spring or pendulum? |
At the points of maximum displacement (the amplitude). |
Planet Name | Mass (kg) | Radius (m) |
Mars | 6.42 × 10^{23} | 3.39 × 10^{6} |
Earth | 5.97 × 10^{24} | 6.38 × 10^{6} |
Moon (of Earth) | 7.35 × 10^{22} | 1.74 × 10^{6} |
Zygote | 4.35 × 10^{25} | 6.12 × 10^{7} |
Describe why potential energy (U = mgh) cannot be used at any altitude |
The potential energy equation (mgh) is an approximation used at/near the surface of the Earth. This is because the gravitational field strength, g (9.81 m/s^{2}) is based on the radial distance of the Earth. In space use: |
For an object in constant orbit, what two forces must be equal? |
Centripetal force (F_{c}) and gravitational force (F_{g}) |
Can the universal gravitational constant G = 6.67 × 10^{-11} Nm^{2}/kg^{2} be used for calculations anywhere in the universe, or just on Earth? |
Anywhere in the universe. |
What is the official term for gravity? |
Gravitational field strength |
What is the main difference between the force of gravity and gravitational field strength? |
The force of gravity (F_{g}) depends on the mass of the object in orbit, while the gravitational field strength (g) does not depend on the mass of the object in orbit—only the mass of the larger body, like a planet or star or something. |
Explain why in space, weight, or the force of gravity (F_{g}) does not equal mass times the gravitational field strength (g) |
Because gravity (g) is not the same in space because it depends on the distance to the center of mass of the larger gravitational body. Instead use: |
How does gravitational potential (V) related to gravitational potential energy (U)? |
Gravitational potential (V) is the gravitational potential energy (U) per unit of mass of the object in orbit V = U ÷ m |
What is Kepler's First Law? |
Basically that the orbit of every planet is an ellipse with the Sun at one of the two foci. |
What is Kepler's Second Law? |
A line joining a planet and the Sun sweeps out equal areas during equal intervals of time. Since the orbit is elliptical, the speed of the planet changes when it is in different parts of its orbit. Basically that a planet moves faster when it's closer to the Sun. |
What is Kepler's Third Law? |
The square of the orbital period (T) of a planet is directly proportional to the cube of the semi-major axis (r) of its orbit. |
Does the escape velocity depend on the mass of an object (like a spaceship)? |
Surprisingly no. The escape velocity only depends on the gravitational constant (G), the mass of the planetary body (M) and the radial distance (r) to the center of mass of the planetary body. |
What is a geosynchronous orbit (GSO)? |
Any orbit around the Earth that matches the rotation of the Earth. The orbital period is the same as the time for the Earth to rotate once. This results in objects that appear to have a fixed position over the Earth at all times. |
What is a Schwarzschild radius? |
This is the radius of mass that would result in the escape velocity (v_{esc}) equivalent to the speed of light. A mass that light cannot escape from is a black hole. So it's the radius that would make a black hole, for a certain mass. |
Is a test charge always considered positive or negative? |
Positive |
True/False: The magnitude of electric force does not depend on whether the charges are positive or negative. |
True. The magnitude of force does not depend on whether the charges attract or repel. |
If the radial distance (r) is halved, by what factor will the electric force (F) increase? |
4 |
A test charge is placed to the West of a stationary negative charge. In what direction will the test charge move? |
East A test charge is positive and will move towards the stationary negative charge. |
What is the conventional direction for electric field lines around positive and negative charges? |
Electric field lines always point outwards from positive charges and inwards towards negative charges. |
What is the unit of electric potential (V)? |
Volt (V) |
What is the unit of charge (q)? |
Coulomb (C) |
What is the unit of electric field (E)? |
Newton/Coulomb (N/C) (Volt/meter, V/m) |
What is potential difference (V)? |
Potential difference (in Volts) is the energy (Joules) per charge (Coulomb) at a load like a resistor or lightbulb. |
What are the quantities in the given formula? U = q·V |
U: Electric potential energy (Joules) q: Charge (Coulombs) V: Potential difference (Volts) |
What are the quantities in the given formula? V = E·d |
V: Potential difference (Volts) E: Electric field (N/C) d: Distance (meters) |
Is electric field a vector or scalar quantity? |
Vector Electric field is a vector because it depends on direction (note that electric potential is a scalar) |
If a charge (q) is moved a certain distance (d) in a uniform electric field (E), describe a situation where the work (U) on the charge is equal to zero. |
U = q·E·d Work is equal to zero when the |
Describe how a uniform electric field (E) is typically created. |
A uniform electric field is formed between two oppositely charged parallel plates. The uniformity of the electric field is displayed with the parallel electric field lines from the positive to the negative plate. |
What is the unit of magnetic field (B)? |
Tesla (T) |
What is current? |
Current is the flow of charges over a certain time interval |
Explain how magnetic field lines are generally drawn in a diagram |
Basically the magnitude of the magnetic field (B) is indicated by the density of the field lines. Although field lines can be either parallel or curved, the field lines can never cross. |
Describe what the thumb and fingers represent in the left hand rule |
The thumb is the force (F), the index finger is the magnetic field (B), and the second finger is the direction of movement of positive charge (q) |
Describe what the thumb and fingers represent in the right hand grip rule |
The thumb is the flow direction of positive charge (q), and the fingers curl in the direction of the circular magnetic field (B) |
For a charge (q) moving in a uniform magnetic field (B), describe what could make the magnetic force (F_{B}) equal to zero |
If the charge moves parallel (0˚) to the field lines. |
Do charges (q) only move in straight lines in a uniform magnetic field (B)? |
No, charges can move in circular or spiral paths, for example when a charge is moving in the magnetic field of a mass spectrometer |
What is an electromagnet? |
When a conductive material like some metals is placed in the core of a coil of wire called a solenoid, the magnetic field (B) accumulates in the material and creates a magnet when current flows through the wire coil. |
What is a solenoid? |
A solenoid is any coiled wire or conductive material in the general shape of a cylinder, which looks like a slinky or something |
What happens to the magnetic force (F_{B}) when a charge does not move? |
F_{B} = 0 There is only a magnetic force when the charge has some velocity. (F = q·v·B·sinθ˚) |
Imagine the maximum magnitude of the magnetic field (B) around a straight wire. Now wrap that wire into a loop. Is the magnitude of the magnetic field (B) at the center of the loop higher or lower than the original field strength? |
The magnetic field (B) at the center of the loop is higher than any point along a straight wire. |
Describe the direction of magnetic field (B) between two opposite (north and south) poles of a magnet |
The magnetic field (B) always points from the north to the south pole. |
How is speed of sound affected by temperature? |
Higher temperatures increase the speed of sound |
Is the fundamental frequency also known as the first resonant length? |
Yes |
What is the resonant length of an open air column and of a closed air column? |
To determine this, know that open ends have antinodes while closed ends have nodes at them. ... Open columns = ½λ Closed columns = ¼λ |
Can sound waves constructively and destructively interfere? |
Yes |
What is intensity and what is the unit of intensity? |
Intensity is the power per area. W/m^{2} |
As the source of a frequency approaches an observer, what happens to the observed frequency? |
The observed frequency increases (this is the doppler effect). |
How does the wavelength relate to resonant length? |
Higher resonant lengths have higher wavelengths. |
Can sound waves constructively and destructively interfere? |
Yes |
What theory does Young's slit experiment support? |
The theory that light has wavelike properties |
What is order number in a slit experiment? |
The order is the number of similar fringes apart from the central fringe. For example a third order bright fringe is the third fringe from the central maximum. |
For small angles does sinθ˚ = tanθ˚ ? |
Yes, this is called the small angle approximation. At small angles, the length of the hypotenuse is very close to the length of one side of the triangle. |
Is the speed of light constant in all mediums? |
No, the speed of light is only constant in a vacuum where c = 3.0 × 10^{8} m/s |
Describe the polarization of light on the surface of water. |
As light reflects off the surface of water, the electric field is entirely polarized in the same direction horizontally. |
What causes thin film interference to display different colors? |
The small variance in the thickness of the film causes different interference patterns resulting in different visible wavelengths of light constructively and destructively interfering. This results in regions of colors. |
What quantity gets reduced as light passes through a polarizer? |
Intensity (I) watts/meter^{2} |
What is diffraction? |
Diffraction is the creation of many wavelets from a narrow opening that acts as a single source. The resulting wavelets spread out in the shape of an arc. |
What conditions are necessary for total destructive interference to occur |
Two waves must have the same amplitude, and a phase shift by a factor of ½λ. The waves must also have the same frequency and wavelength. |
Does resonance require two objects to be in direct contact? |
No. (Resonance is an induced oscillation of an object by a frequency matching the natural frequency of that object.) |
What is a standing wave? |
The oscillation in a standing wave appears at the antinodes while the nodes of the wave remain at a fixed position on the axis of symmetry of the wave. Nodes are spaced apart by ½λ. |
What is a transverse and longitudinal wave? |
A transverse wave oscillates (amplitude) perpendicular to the direction of travel. A longitudinal wave oscillates (amplitude) parallel to the direction of travel. |
Two waves with equal amplitude and frequency have a phase shift of 540˚. How will they interfere? |
Complete destructive interference. (Note that if the amplitudes were not the same then the destructive interference would not be complete) |
What is Huygen's principle? |
Basically that a wavefront is capable of acting as a 'source' for new waves, often at the point of a narrow opening. |
What is lightest, a proton, neutron, or electron? |
Electron |
E = h·f Does the energy of a photon depend on the amplitude? |
No, but it does depend on the frequency |
What is an electronvolt (eV)? |
A unit of energy. 1.0 eV is the work done in order to accelerate one electron through a 1.0 V potential difference. |
Does a photon have mass? |
No |
How can the electrons in an atom create light? |
As electrons drop to lower energy levels, energy is released in the form of light. Actually it's photons that are being emitted. (photons are pure energy and do not have a mass) |
Describe a wave-like property of matter. |
As an example, electrons can create diffraction patterns of fringes. Also, wavelength (λ) and frequency (f) can be calculated for electrons. |
What is the photoelectric effect? |
Incident light/photons on a non-dielectric material can cause electrons to be emitted from the material. |
What is the work function? |
This is the threshold frequency used to calculate the KE_{max} of an emitted electron. The work function (φ) is the minimum, threshold work (energy) required for an electron to be released from a metal material. |
Describe factors that would increase the kinetic energy of an emitted photoelectron |
(note that intensity of incident light has no affect on the kinetic energy in the photoelectric effect) Higher frequency or lower wavelength of incident light would result in greater kinetic energy of photoelectrons. |
Describe how an electron can store quantum of energy. |
A quantum, or packet of energy is stored when a photon of light collides with an electron, causing the electron to move up to a higher energy level. The energy is stored as the negative electron is pulled apart from the positive nuclearcenter. |
How is the red-orange glow of hot metal explained by the photoelectric effect? |
The heat energy causes electrons to jump to higher energy levels. As the metal cools the electrons fall back down to lower energy levels, which releases energy in the form of photons/light, which you see as a warm glow. |
Is binding energy the same as the mass defect energy in the equation? E = mc^{2} |
Yes |
What is a nucleon? |
A nucleon is a proton or neutron. For instance carbon-14 has a total of 14 protons + neutrons, or 14 nucleons. |
How is an inertial reference frame defined? |
Any reference frame in which Newtonian physics holds true. |
How is the movement of a crash test dummy in a crash considered a non-inertial reference frame? |
Well the car is in an inertial reference frame because as a force is applied to the car, the car will decelerate. But the dummy is in a non-inertial reference frame because the dummy would appear to be accelerating with respect to the inside of the car with no apparent contact forces on the dummy. |
Is light years a unit of time or distance? |
Distance |
What is time dilation? |
Time dilation is the slowing of time (or increase in time) for external observers of events traveling near the speed of light. |
What is length contraction? |
Length contraction is the apparent decrease in length of an object or distance for an event near the speed of light. Note that length contraction always occurs in the same direction as the velocity. |
What happens when a magnetic field (B) passes through the center of a coil of wire? |
Current (i) is produced! |
What is the unit of flux (φ)? |
Weber (Wb) |
Flux (φ) is at a maximum with what angle between the normal to the area and the magnetic field? |
When the angle is 0˚ and the field lines are parallel to the normal of the area (or perpendicular to the cross sectional area of the loop). |
Explain how a transformer works |
Transformers use electromagnetic induction to generate a magnetic field in an iron core at the primary input side, which induces a current in a secondary coil. The power on each side is constant while the current and potential difference vary based on the number of coils on either side. |
Compare the number of coils on the primary versus secondary side of a step-down transformer. |
A step-down transformer reduces the potential difference. There are less coils on the secondary side of a step-down transformer. |
Material | Approximate Resisitivity, ρ (Ω·m) |
Copper | 1.5 × 10^{ – 8} |
Gold | 2.5 × 10^{ – 8} |
Iron | 1 × 10^{ – 7} |
Titanium | 4 × 10^{ – 7} |
Stainless Steel | 7 × 10^{ – 7} |
Carbon Graphite | 4 × 10^{ – 6} |
Sea Water | 2 × 10^{ – 1} |
Tap Water | 2 × 10^{ 2} |
Air | 2 × 10^{ 16} |
Polyester (PET) | 1 × 10^{ 21} |
Material | Relative Dielectric Permittivity, 'k' |
Air | 1.0 |
Rubber | 3.0 |
Glass | 5.0 |
Porcelain | 6.5 |
Distilled Water | 80 |
What is the unit of Capacitance (C)? |
Farad (F) |
What is current? |
Current is the flow of charges over a certain time interval |
What is potential difference (V)? |
Potential difference (in Volts) is the energy (Joules) per charge (Coulomb) at a load like a resistor or lightbulb. |
What is the main difference between AC and DC electricity? |
Alternating current (AC) changes direction many times per second. Direct current (DC) flows in a constant direction. (As examples, electrical outlets are AC, and batteries are DC) |
Is conventional current the flow of positive or negative charges? |
As a standard, conventional current uses the flow of positive charges. (Even though you know electricity is the transmission of charges, like negative electrons in a wire) |
What is the Ohm's law equation? |
Potential difference equals current times resistance V = i·R |
What is the difference between potential difference (V) and emf (ε)? |
While both quantities are measured in volt units, the emf is at a source while the potential difference is at a load. |
State the law of conservation of energy in circuits. |
The sum of the energy gained in one circuit is equal to the sum of energy lost in one circuit. |
Does adding resistors in parallel increase or decrease the total resistance of the circuit? |
Resistors added in parallel decrease the overall resistance. |
What electrical quantity is equal for all loads in series? |
Current (i) is the same for loads connected in series. Current splits off at junctions, and there are not junctions in series. |
What is power and what is the unit of power? |
Power is the change in energy over the change in time. The unit of power is the Watt (W). |
What is the unit of resistance (R)? |
Ohm (Ω) |
What is resistance (R)? |
Resistance of the flow of electric current in a material |
Explain how length, cross-sectional area, and temperature affect the resistance in a wire. |
Longer lengths increase resistance, larger cross-sectional areas decrease resistance, and higher temperatures increase resistance. |
What is Kirchoff's Second Law? |
Around any loop in a circuit, the sum of the voltage drops at the loads must equal the sum of the voltage gains at the sources. |
When does a capacitor act like a source and release electrical charges into the circuit? |
When the potential difference of the capacitor is greater than the electromotive force (emf) of the source. |
What does the dielectric do in a capacitor? |
A dielectric is a non-conductive material (oil, ceramics, air...) that acts to decrease the amount of charges that jump between the two parallel plates. This insulator acts to increase the capacitance (C), or the total amount of charge (q) that can be stored for a given potential difference (V). |
What is the symbol for density? |
Rho ρ |
Determine the density of a fluid that has a mass of 2kg and a volume of 1m^{3}. |
= 2 kg/m^{3} |
What is the density (ρ) of water (at standard 1atm and 4˚C) |
= 1,000 kg/m^{3} (1 g/cm^{3}) |
What is the difference between absolute pressure and gauge pressure? |
Gauge pressure (ρgh) is the pressure in a fluid based on the depth, gravity, and density of the fluid. Absolute pressure is the gauge pressure plus the atmospheric pressure. |
What is the SI unit of pressure? |
Pascal Pa |
Describe one factor that would increase the viscosity of a given fluid? |
Decreasing the temperature. This would bring the molecules of the fluid closer together as the molecular kinetic energy decreases. As a result, this increases the friction between the molecules. |
What is Pascal's principle |
Pressure exerted anywhere in a confined fluid is transmitted equally to all points within that fluid such that external changes in pressure will be changed equally at all points in the container. |
True/False: Pressure = Force ÷ Area |
True |
True/False: Pressure = (Density)(Gravity)(Volume) ÷ Area |
True |
What is specific gravity? |
Specific gravity is the ratio of the density of the substance to the density of water (at 4˚C). = ρ_{x} ÷ ρ_{water} |
Explain how a hydraulic lift is able to lift heavy weights on one end by exerting a minimal force on the other end |
The pressure everywhere in the hydraulic is constant. Therefore the ratio of force over area is also constant. A smaller force exerted over a smaller area can push a greater force distributed over a greater area. The trade-off with this greater force is it will move a smaller distance than the first distance. |
What is Archimedes' Principle? |
The buoyant force (F_{b}) of an object is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by that object F_{b} = ρ·g·V |
Describe the equation for the velocity of a fluid: A_{1}v_{1} = A_{2}v_{2} |
As the cross sectional area decreases, the velocity increases, etc. |
Space | Atmosphere | Water | Ground | |
Energy Transfer(s): | I | II | III | IV |
Pressure: | 101,325 Pa |
Volume: | 18,500 mL |
Temperature: | 10 ˚C |
Gas | Percentage |
N_{2} | 60% |
O_{2} | 30% |
C_{3}H_{8} | 10% |
What is the difference between heat and temperature? |
Heat is the change or transfer of thermal energy while temperature is the measure of the thermal energy |
What is the only form of energy transfer that can occur in space? |
Radiation |
What types of heat transfer come from open flame? |
Convection in the surrounding air masses and radiation in the form of visible light and other non-visible spectrums. |
Is work done on the system positive or negative? |
positive +W |
What are the three quantities in the equation ∆U = Q - W |
U: Internal energy Q: Heat gained W: Work done by the system |
What is the first law of thermodynamics? |
The heat gained by a system minus the work done by the system equals the total internal energy: ∆U = Q - W |
What is the second law of thermodynamics? |
Entropy in an isolated system is either constant or increasing, but never decreasing. |
Convert the following 0˚C = ___ K 100˚C = ___ K |
T_{C} = T_{K} - 273 0˚C = 273 K 100˚C = 373 K |
What would be the units of α, the coefficient of linear expansion? ∆L = (α)(∆T)(L_0) |
As you can see from the equation, the units would have to be T^{-1} ∆L = (α)(∆T)(L_0) |
What is the unit of heat? |
Joule (J) |
What is heat of fusion? |
The change in heat (q) when a liquid is converted to solid (at a constant temperature). |
What is heat of vaporization? |
The change in heat (q) when a liquid is converted to gas (at a constant temperature). |
What is the SI unit of pressure? |
Pascal (Pa) |
What is isobaric? |
Constant pressure |
What is adiabatic? |
No transfer or heat (note this is not the same as constant temperature) |
What is the pressure and temperature at STP? |
101.3 kPa (or 1 atm) and 0˚C (or 273K) |
What two quantities are compared in Charles' Law? |
Volume and Temperature. |
What two quantities are compared in Boyles' Law? |
Pressure and Volume |
Explain why increasing the amount of moles of an ideal gas increases the volume, even though ideal gas molecules are considered to have zero volume. |
While it is true that ideal gas particles (atoms, molecules) are considered to have zero volume, it is the space between the gas particles that does occupy a volume and that's what counts. |
State the equation to convert mass to moles |
Moles = Mass ÷ Molar Mass |
Particle | Symbol |
Alpha | ^{4}He |
Beta-Plus | _{1}β^{+} |
Beta-Minus | _{-1}β^{-} |
Neutrino | |
Antineutrino |
Element | Amu (u) |
U^{238} | 238.0508 |
Th^{234} | 234.0436 |
He | 4.0026 |
Isotope | Binding Energy (MeV) |
^{238}U | ? |
^{234}Th | 1777.66 |
^{4}He | 28.29 |
Element | Amu (u) |
I^{131} | 130.9061 |
Xe^{131} | 130.9051 |
e^{-} | 0.00055 |
Element | Atomic Mass (u) |
N^{14} | 14.0067 |
He^{4} | 4.0026 |
O^{17} | 15.9994 |
H^{1} | 1.0079 |
Grade | % U^{235} | % U^{238} |
Depleted | 0 | 100 |
Regular | 0.7 | 99.3 |
Enriched | 2.5 | 97.5 |
Weapons-Grade | 100 | 0 |
What is the lowest energy decay? |
Alpha decay. This decay particle can be stopped by a thin sheet of paper. |
Do gamma rays affect the atomic number or mass number of the reactant isotope element? |
No, neither quantities change because gamma rays are electromagnetic and not matter/particles (with nucleons). |
Which of beta-positive (β^{+}) or beta-negative (β^{-}) decays reduces the atomic number of a parent isotope? |
beta-positive (β^{+}) decay |
What is background radiation? |
The base level radiation detected in the air due to constant sources of nuclear energy like the sun, natural isotope decay, or the remnants of nuclear fallout. |
What is a decay chain? |
A decay chain is the conversion of isotopes into lighter isotopes as they decay, producing many different isotopes in a chain. The chain stops when a stable element is created. |
What type of decay is this, and what missing particle is formed? |
This is alpha decay in which an alpha particle is formed |
What is a Becquerel (Bq)? |
Becquerel is a unit of activity of a radioactive substance that is based on the number of decays per second. |
Is it possible to create new elements? |
Yes, this can be done through a special process called nuclear transmutation that collides elements with particles to make heavier particles. Also keep in mind that fission and fusion also create new elements. |
What is the difference between fission and fusion? |
Fusion is the combination of two (or more) lighter elements to make a heavier element. Fission is the splitting of an atom into two (or more) lighter elements. |
Do fission and fusion both release neutrons and create energy? |
Yes |
Do nuclear power stations use nuclear fission or nuclear fusion to generate electricity? |
Nuclear fission |
Why is nuclear fusion not used to generate electricity? |
Even though nuclear fusion is capable of producing large amounts of energy, like on the Sun, there are no human-made examples that produce a greater amount of energy that what is put in. This is because the positively charged centers of atoms repel too much to combine to create net energy. |