math science








One of the primary objectives of elementary science and technology curricula has always been, and must continue to be, development of curiosity and wonder. Students come to school with a natural curiosity. They also bring with them individual interests and abilities as well as diverse personal and cultural experiences, all of which have an impact on their prior knowledge about science, technology, the environment, and the world in which they live. Effective instructional approaches and learning activities draw on students’ prior knowledge, capture their interest, and encourage meaningful practice both inside and outside the classroom. Students will be engaged when they are able to see the connection between the scientific and technological concepts they are learning and their application in the world around them and in real-life situations. Prerequisite: Science 7

Biology: Cells

Cell Theory

Describe the three basic ideas of cell theory. [3] Solution
Hint Clear Info
Incorrect Attempts:
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1) A cell is the smallest divisible unit of life that makes up all organ systems and living things.
2) All organisms consist of (different numbers of) cells, from one-celled organisms to trillions of cells.
3) Cells 'reproduce' by dividing to create more and more cells through a process called cell division. All cells originate from previous cells.

The Cell: Plant Cells Vs. Animal Cells

Name and describe the function of two organelles that can be found inside plant cells but not in animal cells. [4] Solution
Hint Clear Info
Incorrect Attempts:
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Name and description of any 2 of:

Cell wall: rigid layer provides structural support to the plant, and allows passage of materials through pores.
Chloroplast: Contains chlorophyll used for photosynthesis to convert CO2 and water into sugar and oxygen.
Central storage vacuole: used by the plants to store water when it is plentiful, for later times like during a drought.

The Cell: Organelles

DNA is mainly stored within the Solution
DNA is mainly stored within the nucleus of a cell.

The mitochondria Solution
The mitochondria is the powerhouse of the cell. It converts food (glucose sugar) into energy for use around the cell.

Most materials are transported around the inside of a cell by Solution
Diffusing through the cytoplasm. Diffusion occurs from a high concentration (where the materials are made) to a low concentration (where the materials are needed).


Photographs taken with a microscope are called Solution
Micrographs. Google 'micrographs' to see some of these microscope photos for yourself...

The Microscope

Who is thought to have invented the first successful light microscope? Solution
Antony van Leeuwenhoek (1632 - 1723) was a Dutch scientist from the Netherlands who invented the first successful light microscope.

Osmosis and Diffusion

Movement through a cell by osmosis involves the movement of Solution
Osmosis uses concentrations of ions in water, but it is only the water the moves.

The direction of diffusion in cells is from Solution
Diffusion is the movement of particles, rather than solvents like water. The particles move from high concentration to low concentration. (Compare to osmosis, where the water moves from low concentration to high concentration). Eventually the net movement will stop when the concentrations are equal across the different regions.


Describe what the term selectively permeable means. Solution
A membrane that will allow certain molecules or ions to pass through it by diffusion. Depends on several things, including concentration of the molecules on either side of the membrane. (You usually need to know the primary example: lipid bilayer in the plasma membrane.)

Unicellular Organisms

Which of the following organisms is not unicellular? Solution
Most bacteria are unicellular (single celled) prokaryotes. You should recognize some/most of these as unicellular. You should also know that most animals are multicellular, like a dog for example.

Energy: Cellular Respiration

Cellular respiration occurs in Solution
Cellular respiration occurs in plant and animal cells. Both require the energy that is produced from breaking down simple sugars.

Energy: Synthesis and Metabolism

Oxygen and sugar products are turned into carbon dioxide, water, and energy in the... Solution

Human Cells

There are approximately ____________ cells in the human body (not including bacterial cells). Solution
100,000,000,000,000 (100 Trillion) !

Organ Systems: Tissues in Animals

Which of the following is not part of the 4 main classifications of tissues in the human body? Solution
The heart is not considered one of the 4 main classifications of tissues - it is an organ that consists of all the tissue types: muscle, nervous, epithelial, and connective tissue.

Organ Systems: Tissues in Plants

Which of the following are not part of the 3 main classifications of tissues in plants? (More than one answer: check all that apply). Solution
The cell wall is for structural support, but is not a tissue in a plant. The reproductive components of a plant are not considered a tissue classification.

The organs in plants are: Solution
3 plant organs: leaves, roots, and stems.

Types of Tissues

Which of the following is not a type of connective tissue? Solution
Nerves are a type of nervous tissue, and not connective tissue.

Human Organ Systems

Describe the interaction of 3 organ systems in the human body. Make sure your answer explains at least one interaction between each organ system. Solution
[Answers may vary, answers not shown] Choose any three organ systems from:
Skeletal, muscular, circulatory, nervous, respiratory, digestive, integumatary (skin, hair, nails), excretory, reproductive, lymphatic, and endocrine.

Cancer Cells

Cancer is primarily a result of... Solution
Cancer is characterized by uncontrolled cellular reproduction/division in the cell cycle. The growth and division cannot be regulated...

Structural and Mechanical Systems


Which of the following is a force? Solution
The effect of gravity on a person's weight

Types of Forces

Which of the following statements is false? Solution
Forces do not require gravity, although gravity is the cause of one force - the force due to gravity. This force is the weight you experience from the pull of the Earth on the matter in your body. But there are many forces that exist in gravity-free environments in space... but we won't get into that here.

Units of Force

The international standard metric unit of force is the Solution
Force has units of Newtons. For example the force due to gravity of some particular person's body is 500 Newtons.

The Acceleration Due to Gravity

The magnitude of gravity is Solution
Gravity = 9.8 N/kg = 9.8 m/s2


Mass is defined as Solution
Mass is not defined by how heavy something is because that depends on gravity, which is different on every planet! Instead, mass means how much matter or "stuff" something is made up of -- and of course the identify of the material matters because of density.

Calculating Force

Calculate the force due to gravity (weight) of a mass of 100 kg given the acceleration due to gravity, 9.8 m/s2. Solution
Notice how weight is calculated using the mass and something else -- gravity!

Weight = Mass times Gravity
= (100 kg)(9.8 m/s2)
= 980 N

Units of Energy

The units of energy are Newtons. Solution
The units of energy are Joules. Newtons are the unit of Force.


Which of the following is not a form of energy? Solution
Kinetic energy is the energy of motion, potential energy is the energy of height, and electrical energy is the energy of charges.


Work is loosely defined as: Solution
Work is the energy it takes to move something by a certain distance.

In which of the following situations is no work done? Solution
Work is only done when a distance has been travelled.

The Calculation for Work

You have learned that energy is called work in physics and that work is done when a force is applied over a certain distance.

Work (energy) is calculated by what formula? Solution
Work is the energy of a force over a certain distance. In other words work must move -- it must have a distance.

A car is propelled with a 100 N force over a distance of 20 m. Calculate the overall work (energy) applied over this distance. Solution

The force required to pull a sled over the snow is 10 N. If 50 J of work (energy) is used to pull the sled, calculate the distance the sled was pulled. Solution

Correct Units for Distance

The standard metric units for distance in physics are Solution
The meter (m).

Kinetic Vs. Potential Energy

In which of the following situations is there gravitational potential energy? Solution
Gravitational potential energy is the energy stored due to height and gravity.

The 3 Functions of Machines

Which of the following is not one of the three functions of machines? Solution
Machines do all the things listed except the don't change energy types.

Simple Machines

Which of the following is not a machine? Solution
A machine is "a device that reduces the force required to accomplish work. All machines are based on one or more simple machines [to change the direction or point of application of a force applied]. The simple machines are the lever, the pulley, the inclined plane, the wheel and axle, the wedge, and the screw." - The Ontario Curriculum

All of the above can change the direction or point of application of a force applied, except for something simply sitting on a table.

Defining Mechanical Advantage

Mechanical advantage is calculated with the following formula, where MA stands for mechanical advantage, and F stands for force, in units of Newtons. Solution
Simple division gives the MA ratio. Greater, less than, or equal to one.

Mechanical advantage is defined as: Solution
A mechanical advantage greater than 1.0 makes it easier to do something physical -- like moving something heavy. For example levers require little force to move greater forces.

Calculating Mechanical Advantage

The force due to friction required to stop a dump truck is 10,000 N. The force of the driver to push the brake pedal is 10 N. What is the mechanical advantage of the brake system? Solution
MA = Foutput/Finput


Classify the following levers, where input force is the applied force, and output force is the effect.

When the input and output on opposite sides of the fulcrum. Solution
A first class lever has the input and output on opposite sides of the fulcrum. This is the most powerful form of lever.

When the input and output are on the same side of the fulcrum and the input is further from the fulcrum. Solution
It is a second class lever when the input and output are on the same side of the fulcrum and the input is further from the fulcrum.

When the input and output are on the same side of the fulcrum and the input is closer to the fulcrum. Solution
Third class levers are the least powerful. This is when the input and output are on the same side of the fulcrum and the input is closer to the fulcrum.


A lever is a simple machine that rests on a pivot point called a fulcrum. Solution
True, levers are considered simple machines because they function to apply mechanical function for a certain task. Levers must use some form of a fulcrum.

Explain the difference between a first and second class lever. [2] Solution
Hint Clear Info
Incorrect Attempts:
Hint Unavailable
A first class lever has the fulcrum between the input and output forces - like a pry bar.

A second class lever has the output force between the fulcrum and the input force - like a wheelbarrow.

The difference is the direction of forces. In a first class lever the input and output forces are in opposite directions, while the second-class lever has input and output forces in the same direction.

(A third class lever has the input force between the fulcrum and the output force - like a hockey stick or rake. It also has forces in the same direction.)

What lever type has the greatest mechanical advantage (is easiest to do). [1] Solution
Hint Clear Info
Incorrect Attempts:
Hint Unavailable
A first class lever feels easier to you because it has a high mechanical advantage, putting out a greater force for a minimal input. The order is: First class lever > Second class lever > Third class lever


Determine what type of levers these objects are. Solution
Baseball Bat
First class lever
Second class lever
Third class lever
None of the above
Notice where the pivot point is on each lever type compared to where the force is exerted (by your hands).

Ideal Mechanical Advantage of a Lever

A lever with an ideal mechanical advantage of 5.0 and an input lever arm of 1.0 m has an output arm length of Solution

Example of a Mechanism: Bicycle

Define a mechanism and provide an example of one on a bicycle. [2] Solution
Hint Clear Info
Incorrect Attempts:
Hint Unavailable
A mechanism is two or more "simple machines" working together.

Examples on a bicycle: wheel and axle, gears are pulleys, brakes levers are levers, or screws on various components...

The Calculation of Efficiency

Efficiency is calculated by: Solution
Efficiency = Input work is the total energy put into the system. Useful output is the energy that is put out of the system that is used.

The Calculation of Efficiency II

It requires 400 J of energy to raise a certain flag 20 m up a flagpole. If the force to pull the rope is 10 N and the mechanical advantage is 1.0, then calculate the efficiency of this system? Solution

W = F × d
= 10N × 20m
= 200J

Efficiency = (Useful output energy) ÷ (Input energy) × 100%
= (200J) ÷ (400J) × 100%

Mechanical Systems

Which of the following is not a non-mechanical system? Solution
A system is a group of interacting, interrelated, or interdependent elements forming a complex whole. Systems can be mechanical (like robotic assembly lines), or non-mechanical (like a school, public transportation network, or waste recycling program).

Example of Systems

Describe how a system has developed from a need. Pick a specific system and explain how it was developed in response to a specific need. Solution
(Answers may vary)

Example of a non-mechanical system:
Trains invented to connect people and materials long distances at increased efficiency....

The Social Factors of Automating Systems

Describe one social and one economic impact of automating the manufacturing industry. Solution
(Answers may vary)

Efficiency, cost, jobs...

Matter, Energy, and Fluids


Which three of the following are fluids? Solution
Fluids are gases and liquids.

Mass and Matter

Fill in the blank: Mass is the measure of the amount of ________ in a substance. Volume is the amount of space that ________ takes up. Solution
Fill in the blank: Mass is the measure of the amount of matter in a substance. Volume is the amount of space that matter takes up.

The Particle Theory of Matter

Which of the following is NOT part of the Particle Theory of Matter? Solution

Thermal Expansion

(Check all answers that apply) The density of water decreases as it goes from: Solution

Solids, Liquids, and Gases

Why do liquids fill the shape of the container, while solids do not? How do gases expand to completely fill the container? [2] Solution
Hint Clear Info
Incorrect Attempts:
Hint Unavailable
The definition of a fluid is that it expands to fill its container. Liquids and gases are fluids. Solids are not fluids. The molecules of a liquid can slip and slide around to fill the space defined by the container. Gases are less dense than liquids, and can fill the space occupied by the container without respect to gravity. The high kinetic molecular energy of gases ensures the molecules in contact with the edges of the container exert an outward pressure.

Fluids: Archimedes' Principle

The buoyant force is based on the (I)____________ and opposes the force of (II)____________. Solution
The buoyant force is based on the weight of fluid displaced and opposes the force of gravity.

This buoyant force is directly related to the weight of the fluid and only partly related to the volume or density of the object displacing this fluid.

Fluids: Pascal's Law

Pascal's Law states that: Solution

Flow Rate of Fluids

If the flow rate of a fluid is 50 mL per minute, find:

The volume of fluid that flows in 30 s. Solution
Hint Clear Info
Incorrect Attempts:
Hint Unavailable

The flow rate in units of L/hour. Solution
Hint Clear Info
Incorrect Attempts:
Hint Unavailable


Two cubes, the exact same size, are filled with different contents. The density of cube A is 10 kg/L and the density of cube B is 40 g/cm3. Which cube is denser? Solution
Hint Clear Info
Incorrect Attempts:
Hint Unavailable

Force, Pressure, and Area

Calculate the pressure of a hydraulic piston if the force applied is 10 N, over a surface area of 20 cm2. Solution
P =
Hint Clear Info
Incorrect Attempts:
N/m2, (or Pa)
Hint Unavailable

Fluid Flow and Pressure

Fluids always flow from Solution
Fluids always flow from high pressure to low pressure regions. It is sometimes called a gradient when there are regions with different high and low amounts of something.

Pressure and Temperature

How is pressure proportional to temperature? Solution
Pressure is directly proportional to temperature. For example in a closed container with a constant amount of matter and volume, as the temperature inside doubles, the pressure increases by the same amount - double.

Compression of Gases

Gases are easier to compress than solids and liquids because Solution
There is much more space between gas particles (molecules) than solid or liquid because of the higher kinetic energy of the molecules bouncing around and pushing these particles apart. This results in gases like air being more easy to compress than solids like metal or liquids like water.

Earth and Space: Water Systems

Salt Water and Fresh Water

The percentage of fresh water on Earth, out of the total water content including salt water, is closest to: Solution
The current estimate is that fresh water is 3% of the total amount of water on Earth.


An aquifer consists of: Solution
Water is stored in underground pools as well as in the spaces between loose rock and soil. But not in bedrock, or air.

The Water Cycle

Condensation occurs to convert _________ into _________. Solution
The part of clouds that we can see are formed by tiny, condensed (liquid) water droplets. Water vapor is the evaporated gaseous form of water in there that we cannot see.

The Water Cycle

Which of the following releases energy into the surrounding air when it occurs? Solution
Evaporation and transpiration absorb energy - like the cooling effect of perspiration evaporating off skin. Precipitation neither absorbs nor releases energy. Condensation is the only process listed here that actually releases heat energy into the surroundings.

Evaporation Vs. Boiling

Water can change state from a liquid to a gas with temperature far below boiling, 100˚C. Solution
Water can evaporate at lower temperatures. Evaporation is a different process from boiling. Boiling uses external energy to heat water molecules with a lot of energy which allows them to escape into the air as gaseous vapor. On the other hand, evaporation occurs at a much slower rate because it uses the energy that is found within the water molecules, which is far less.

The Water Cycle

The movement of water from the atmosphere to the hydrosphere is called precipitation. Solution
False, tricky, because the hydrosphere encompasses all the spheres in which water exists, including when it is in gaseous vapor form in the "atmosphere" - this is actually considered in the "hydrosphere" too.

The movement of water from the air to the ground is called Solution
Precipitation is also known as rain, snow, hail, sleet, and a million other different names... Basically it is when H2O has already condensed and is falling to the ground.

Transpiration is: Solution
Transpiration is a significant part of the water cycle. Water moves from the 'ground' to the atmosphere in plants, and from inside animals to the atmosphere.


In North America there are ____ oceanic watersheds. Solution
Arctic, Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico, Hudson Bay, and the Pacific.

Heat Capacity

Heat capacity is defined as the Solution
Length of time to heat up and cool down does matter when determining the heat capacity of a material. Heat capacity is just the ability of a material to absorb heat to change its temperature. It is the same as thermal capacity, in which the change in temperature partly depends on the total mass of the material. If two of the same materials are compared where mass 'A' is twice as big as mass 'B' then it would take twice as long for mass 'A' to change temperature by the same amount as mass 'B' so the heat capacity would be twice as high for mass 'A'.

Sea Breeze and Land Breeze

During the daytime, air masses are generally Solution
Typically, air masses are warmer over land during the daytime because of the lower heat capacity of the ground (compared to water). This allows the air over land to heat up more.


A powerful storm is classified as a hurricane when wind speeds exceed Solution
119 km/hr = 33 m/s = 74 mi/hr = 64 knots

Ice Sheets

The name of the ice sheet that once covered Canada many 10,000s of years ago is called the Solution
The Laurentide ice sheet receded to reveal the land in Canada.

The Water Table

Describe three natural events that can change the height of a water table Solution
Hint Clear Info
Incorrect Attempts:
Hint Unavailable
Flooding, earthquakes, and drought.

Water Quality

An example of a biological contaminant of a water supply is Solution
Biological refers to microscopic organisms rather than chemicals. The common bacteria, E.Coli is found naturally different places including in every person. It is a biological contaminant when in the water supply.

Sustainability Solution

Bioremediation is the process of Solution
Bioremediation is the process of cleaning water with plants to bacteria microorganisms.

Other: Labs

Elements of a Lab Report

State some elements that make up the hypothesis, method, observation, and conclusion sections of a lab report. Solution

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