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# Physics SPH4U

This course enables students to deepen their understanding of the concepts and theories of physics, Students will explore further the laws of dynamics and energy transformations, and will investigate electrical, gravitational, and magnetic fields; electromagnetic radiations; and the interface between energy and matter. The will further develop inquiry skills, learning, for example, how the interpretation of experimental data can provide indirect evidence to support the development of a scientific model. Students will also consider the impact on society and the environment of technological applications of physics. Prerequisite: Grade 11 Physics SPH3U

# Dynamics: Kinematics and Forces

## A basic 2000 kg transport helicopter has a maximum thrust of 60 kN, and is carrying a 500 kg crate of survival supplies for an outpost research community with an inextensible, heavy-duty steel cable. ## A car with a mass of 1,800 kg drives around a frictionless banked curve with a radius of 120m. The angle of inclination of the banked curve is 12˚ from the horizontal. # Light, Waves, and Optics

## Thomas Young's experiment involved a monochromatic light source, projected through a single slit, then projected through a double slit. ## Thin films can create rainbow-like shimmer on some surfaces, like oil on water, or a surfactant like soap, on air. ## The pupil is the circular aperture in the eye that expands and contracts depending on the level of ambient light. The average pupil ranges in diameter from 3 mm to 9 mm. The Rayleigh criterion is the principle for determining the minimum resolvable detail between two things to be able to tell them apart.

$\theta_{min} = \dfrac{1.22 · \lambda}{A}$
$\theta$ is the angle between the two sources, in radians.
$\lambda$ is wavelength.
A is the diameter of the aperture (pupil).

## Polarizing materials reduce the intensity of the incoming light. # Matter-Energy Quantum Physics

## Given the following imaginary energy levels for an atom... # (AP) Circuits

## Match the correct equations with the type of circuits below. 1. RT = R1 + R2 + ...
2. $\dfrac{1}{R_T} = \dfrac{1}{R_1} + \dfrac{1}{R_2} + ...$
3. VT = V1 + V2 + ...
4. VT = V1 = V2 = ...
5. iT = i1 + i2 + ...
6. iT = i1 = i2 = ...

V = i R

## Answer the following questions using the approximate resistivity values given in the table below. Resisitivity values have been rounded for ease of calculations.

 Material Approximate Resisitivity, ρ (Ω·m) Copper 1.5 × 10 – 8 Gold 2.5 × 10 – 8 Iron 1 × 10 – 7 Titanium 4 × 10 – 7 Stainless Steel 7 × 10 – 7 Carbon Graphite 4 × 10 – 6 Sea Water 2 × 10 – 1 Tap Water 2 × 10 2 Air 2 × 10 16 Polyester (PET) 1 × 10 21

## Capacitors are made with different materials that allow a higher amount of charges to collect on the parallel plates for a given amount of potential difference. (ε0 = 8.85 × 10-12 F/m)

 Material Relative Dielectric Permittivity, 'k' Air 1.0 Rubber 3.0 Glass 5.0 Porcelain 6.5 Distilled Water 80

## Three identical 5.0 mF capacitors are connected according the diagram below. # (AP) Fluids

## A hydraulic lift consists of two cylindrical pistons connected with a cable containing an incompressible fluid. When piston 'A' is pushed downward with a pressure of 100 Pa, the force exerted upwards on side 'B' is 1,000 N. The radius of piston on side 'A' is 4cm. ## A hydraulic lift has a smaller piston and a larger piston each 2cm and 6cm in diameter, respectively. ## An incompressible 10.0L float is attached to a 50kg iron anchor with a 10m rope. This assembly is dropped into a lake with a depth of 20m. Assume the temperature of the water to be a constant 4˚C throughout. Determine the tension of the rope at the points listed below. (ρiron = 7,800 kg/m3 and ρwater = 1,000 kg/m3) # (AP) Thermodynamics

## A 5.0 L insulated container contains the following mixture of gases at 0˚C and 2 atm:

 Gas Percentage N2 60% O2 30% C3H8 10%

PV = nRT

# (AP) Atomic and Nuclear physics

## Write the decay reactions for the following. Include neutrinos or antineutrinos where applicable.

 Particle Symbol Alpha 4He Beta-Plus 1β+ Beta-Minus -1β- Neutrino $v$ Antineutrino $\overline{v}$

## Radioactive decay of Uranium238 emits an alpha particle.

$^{238} _{92} \text{U}$

## Iodine131 is known to decay via beta-negative decay. Iodine131 is can be detected in significant amounts at the site of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident in Japan (as a fission product of U235).

$^{131} _{53} \text{I}$ # Propagation of Uncertainty

## Calculate the value with its propagated uncertainty in each of the different scenarios.

### The error in the following calculation is ± 0.4J Solution (22.3 ± 0.5J) × 8 True False Multiply the constant (8) into the magnitude and the uncertainty: = 22.3(8) ± 0.5(8)J = 178 ± 4J Percent complete:
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